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Dieses Wiki hat es sich zum Ziel gesetzt, Abiturienten bei ihren Vorbereitungen auf das Abitur unter die Arme zu greifen. Das heißt zum einen, dass eine Zusammenfassung des Lernstoffes entstehen soll, zum anderen, dass ein Angebot an Übungsaufgaben eingestellt wird. Jeder ist herzlich eingeladen, daran mitzuwirken! Einfacher habt ihr es mit der Vorlage für ein Fach und der Vorlage für einen Kurs

Auswahl des Bundeslandes:



(fettgedruckte mit Zentralabitur)


DiesesWiki ist auch das 1. Deutsche Wikia was es gab !

Materialien


United States of America Bearbeiten

American Dream Bearbeiten

a thousand varieties
equal opportunities to all men, to every man his chance
“dream of a better richer and happier life”
clearly defined geographical locality (New World → USA) penis
The American Dream stands for a richer, fuller and better life. It gives everyone opportunities based on their skills.
The American Dream aims for a Greater Society. Everyone can come

to the USA and start a new life where no one cares about your background

nor your history. It gives you the chance to start over, to create a

new life for yourself and your family. Everyone has to work together to achieve the American Dream and there is no competition (James Truslow). "From rags to riches", describes the attitude which is supposed to be shown through the American Dream.

For many people it seems as if the American Dream is dead, but a

lot of people think it is alive and well. For them the American Dream is

about to justice, equality and freedom. You have the right to speak

your opinion and stand up for what you believe in. The American Dream falls into two categories, one of them is the Pot of Gold. This describes the material dream people are aiming for. They want wealth, material excess and prosperity. They want a home, where they are safe. Another thing they want is properties. They want to be able to say that something belongs to them. The American Dream was made for immigrants to

come to the US. But nowadays the American Dream is not only for

immigrants but also for native Americans. For everyone who dreams of coming to the US and achieving a goal. The motto of the American Dream is that you have to work hard to prosper and that everyone can make it as long as they have the will to work hard.

Besides the Pot of Gold theory, there is the Rainbow Pot theory

which deals with the feelings the American Dream fulfills, such as equality, justice and freedom as previously mentioned. But it is not just that. It is about the ability to look at yourself in a critical way

and to criticize your government. Americans have a "we can do anything"
attitude which helps them sustain their positive way of thinking.
While for the immigrants the American Dream is to possess a house
in a safe neighbourhood with a yard and various possessions, the

Americans who already possess a small house dream of something bigger. They want a big house which stands out from all of the others and which shows their upper class status. Another dream that many Americans have is to start a family or to expand it.

The American Dream was basically developed during the time of
the great migration. In the 1800s a lot of immigrants took Columbus as

their example and decided that the wage they earned in their home country was not enough anymore, it was not " good to be poor" any longer

and with promises from friends and relatives, they packed up their

meager possessions and moved to the US with the dream of a better, richer and fuller life in mind. Many immigrants, especially Puerto Ricans, went to New York to start a new life. They came from countries such as San Juan, Haiti, Mexico, San Dominico, Jamaica and many more. At

the time of the great migration, a lot of immigrants went west and

populated at first 39 states but nowadays there are immigrants in every state in the USA and they even have their own societies.  In New York, immigrants who reached and maintained a high social position created a society for their brothers who had failed to fulfill the American Dream.


During the World War the job market was booming in the US, but

there was no way for the Hispanics to come to the US, that's why the US army made sure that there was a way of transportation for them right before the war ended.

The migration curve always depends on the job rates, if the

job market is booming there are more immigrants. If the amount of jobs is decreasing the migration curve lessens.  But a key factor which has to be remembered is that for a lot people, Americans and immigrants, is that the American Dream is corrupted, dead and may even be called a nightmare.

The disintegration of the American Dream started in the Jazz

Age. It was all about material excess and prosperity. The social and moral values changed completely for the population during that period; cynicism, greed and money were more important.  It was the time where alcohol flowed in masses and parties were a casualty. The soldiers, who fought in the war, came back to a hypocritical America where there were no more moral or social values. The economy led to material prosperity and material excesses and it was possible for everyone to become rich riding the wave of industrialism - as long as one worked hard enough. The class difference between the old rich and the new rich made it impossible to live in harmony. The old rich or the "aristocrat rich" always looked down on the Nouveau rich. The Nouveau rich lacked class, they were tacky, showed off their wealth, but what the new rich lacked in class, they had in heart. This is something that the old rich could not claim.

The morals of the American Dream have completely changed, it

used to be about opportunities, equality, justice, the chance to make it

in the US, going through an adventure and truly finding yourself.

Nowadays it is only about earning money and stepping over people to make

as much money as possible.  Even Obama himself says that the American

Dream is fading because of the upward mobility, which itself is shrinking, The gap between the rich and the poor is getting too big. Racial and sexual discrimination is getting stronger. Obama is trying to

focus on the lower class who needs the chance to achieve the American

Dream, while the upper class has basically already achieved it in the perspective in which we look at the American Dream nowadays.






History Bearbeiten

quarrel between the colonies and England

social (new, democratic social order), political, economic (taxes) reasons
  • e.g. 1773 – Boston Tea Party


July 4, 1776

Declaration of Independence (concept by Thomas Jefferson)
  • “all men are created equal”
  • unalienable Rights: Life, Liberty, pursuit of Happiness
  • Governments derive their just powers from the consent of the governed
→ democracy


1787

Constitution
  • abolition of slavery
  • civil rights


1789 – 1797

Washington President


1861 – 1865

Civil War
  • secession
Confederacy (South) ↔ Union (North)
Jefferson Davis ↔ Abraham Lincoln
Robert E. Lee ↔ Grant
→ reunion



19.11.1863

Gettysburg Address
→ “one of the most moving expressions of the democratic spirit ever uttered”


April 14, 1865

assassination Abraham Lincoln


1865

Ku Klux Klan


1963

Martin Luther King – I Have a Dream, Washington
  • “all men are created equal” (Declaration of Independence)
  • freedom, brotherhood
Malcolm X (minister of the Black Muslims, assassinated in 1965)
  • Sermons of Hate: Christianity only serves the interest of the white man




Great Britain Bearbeiten

700 BC

Celts from central Europe / southern Russia
  • ancestors of many people in Highland Scotland, Wales, Ireland, Cornwall
  • different tribes ruled over by a warrior class



55 BC

Julius Caesar visits “Britannia”


43 – 409 AD

Roman occupation of “Britannia”
  • → spreading of culture (Latin), civilisation
  • → Hadrian` s wall along Scottish border
  • → foundation of larger towns, large farms (“villas”)
  • → ~ 5 million population


430

invaders (Germanic tribes: Saxons, Angles, Jutes)
  • → eviction of Celts
Government and society
  • King` s Council (Witan)
→ laws and charters
→ chooses king
→ advisors (today: Privy Council)
  • “Shires” → administrative areas
  • loyalty to family → loyalty to lord and king
  • beginning of class system (king, lords, soldiers, workers)


865

invasion by Vikings from Norway, Denmark


1066

coronation of William the Conqueror (Norman)
→ occupation, destruction of England
→ feudalism
→ kingdom as personal possession


1215

Magna Charta
  • 63 articles (taxes, justice and right, private property, certain civil rights)
  • king` s will = law → “Law is king”
→ constitutional principle


1642 – 1649

civil war (absolutistic reign by Charles I. ↔ parliament)


1649 – 1658

military dictatorship by Oliver Cromwell


1660

restoration of monarchy, kings: Charles II., James II.


1679

Habeas Corpus Act
  • rights of persons accused of crimes


1688/89

bloodless “Glorious Revolution”
  • reason: fear that James II. Aimed to impose Catholicism and absolutism on England
→ William of Orange (Dutch) and his wife Mary become sovereigns


1689

Bill of Rights
→ British monarch reigns by grace of Parliament


no formal Constitution

→ Unwritten Constitution
1.) statute law
written laws
  • e.g. Bill of Rights
2.) common law
traditional, unwritten
based on judges` decisions
3.) conventions
rules that have developed during the centuries

Ireland Bearbeiten

Northern Ireland problem: colonial problem

colonists (Protestants): Ireland remaining in UK

natives (Catholics): unity of Northern Ireland and Republic of Ireland


1603 – 1625

Scottish and English settlers in the North of Ireland


1801

Act of Union
  • Ireland becomes part of the UK
  • home rule fails


1845 – 49

Potato Famine
→ The Great Hunger
→ 1 million Irish peasants dead


1916

Easter Rising in Dublin
→ sense of nationality
→ strengthens the Irish Republican movement


1921

partition of Ireland
→ independence of Southern Ireland
→ “Irish Free State”
civil war
  • reason: Anglo-Irish Treaty → loss of Northern Ireland


1937

declaration of the Republic of Ireland (Southern Ireland)



1968

Civil Rights Movement
  • Ulster Catholics demand an end to discrimination
→ riots, violent conflict


1969

stationing of British troops


1972

Direct Rule (Northern Ireland ruled over from London)


since 1993

peace process
  • e.g. 2007 – disarming of IRA


March 2009

assault
→ two British soldiers dead
→ possible spiral of violence






India and Pakistan Bearbeiten

largest colony of British Empire


1943

great famine
→ 1 – 3 million dead
→ anti – British feeling intensifies


March 1944

Indian National Army declares war on Great Britain and pushes into India from Burma


since 1945

six years of rule by the Labour party
→ less enthusiasm for empire


midnight August 14 – 15, 1947

creation of the independent states of India (Hindu) and Pakistan (Muslim)
→ West Pakistan (Pakistan), East Pakistan (Bangladesh)
  • reason: passive resistance against the government led by Mahatma Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru (Quit India movement)
  • Muslim League (leader: Ali Jinnah) demands own state
→ rioting between Sikhs, Hindus and Muslims
one of the largest mass migrations ever recorded in modern

history, with a total of 12 million Hindus, Sikhs and Muslims moving between the newly created nations of India and Pakistan


today

outsourcing of jobs
immigration to Great Britain
→ prejudices (Enoch Powell)





An English-Speaking World Bearbeiten

500

Englisc – few people, little influence


end of 16th century

5 – 7 million, only England


100 years later

750 million, half of those as a mother tongue


end of 20th century

the language of the planet 350 million as a mother tongue, 1/10 of the world` s population
most important:
  • technical and scientific terms
  • business

Der hier dargestellte Lernstoff muss nicht zwingend vollständig sein. Auch die Themengebiete, die für ein Bundesland aufgelistet wurden, können nur zur ungefähren Orientierung dienen! Es ist immer besser, sich auf die Angaben des Lehrers zu verlassen.

Siehe auch: Andere Projekte, Editorial

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